了解mysqlpump工具

Ⅰ、功能分析

1.1 多线程介绍

                    +-----------+
                    | mysqlpump |
                    +-----+-----+
                          |
        +-----------------------------------+
        |                 |                 |
    +---v---+         +---V---+         +---v---+
    |default|         |  DB1  |         |  DB2  |
    | queue |         | queue |         | queue |
    +---+---+         +---+---+         +---+---+
        |                 |                 |
        V                 V                 V
+-------+-------+ +-------+-------+ +-------+-------+
|+----+   +----+| |+----+   +----+| |+----+   +----+|
||thd1|...|thd3|| ||thd1|...|thd3|| ||thd1|...|thd3||
|+----+   +----+| |+----+   +----+| |+----+   +----+|
+---------------+ +---------------+ +---------------+
  • mysqlpump是MySQL5.7的官方工具,用于取代mysqldump,其参数与mysqldump基本一样
  • mysqlpump是多线程备份,但只能到表级别,单表备份还是单线程
  • mysqldump备份时,有个默认队列(default),队列下开N个线程去备份数据库/数据库中的表
  • 支持开多个队列(对应不同库/表),然后每个队列设置不同线程,进行备份

1.2 优缺点

优点:

  • 官方工具,听着牛逼

缺点:

  • 只能并行到表级别,如果表特别大,开多线程和单线程是一样的,并行度不如mydumper
  • 无法获取当前备份对应的binlog位置
  • MySQL5.7.11之前的版本不要使用,并行导出和single-transaction是互斥的

1.3 重要参数

--default-parallelism   指定线程数,默认开2个线程进行并发备份

--parallel-schemas  指定哪些数据库进行并发备份

--set-gtid-purged=OFF   5.7.18后加入的参数,

Ⅱ、演示一手

[[email protected]_0_5_centos ~]# mysqlpump --single-transaction --set-gtid-purged=OFF --parallel-schemas=2:employees --parallel-schemas=4:dbt3 -B employees dbt3 > /tmp/backup.sql
mysqlpump: [Warning] Using a password on the command line interface can be insecure.
Dump progress: 1/5 tables, 0/7559817 rows
Dump progress: 3/15 tables, 286750/12022332 rows
Dump progress: 3/15 tables, 686750/12022332 rows
Dump progress: 3/15 tables, 1042250/12022332 rows
...
Dump completed in 43732 milliseconds

新开一个会话看下情况
([email protected]) [(none)]> show processlist;
+--------+------+------------------+------+---------+------+-------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Id     | User | Host             | db   | Command | Time | State             | Info                                                                                                 |
+--------+------+------------------+------+---------+------+-------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 138199 | root | 172.16.0.5:39238 | NULL | Query   |    0 | starting          | show processlist                                                                                     |
| 138267 | root | 172.16.0.5:39776 | NULL | Sleep   |    2 |                   | NULL                                                                                                 |
| 138268 | root | 172.16.0.5:39778 | NULL | Query   |    2 | Sending to client | SELECT SQL_NO_CACHE `emp_no`,`dept_no`,`from_date`,`to_date`  FROM `employees`.`dept_emp`            |
| 138269 | root | 172.16.0.5:39780 | NULL | Query   |    2 | Sending to client | SELECT SQL_NO_CACHE `emp_no`,`birth_date`,`first_name`,`last_name`,`gender`,`hire_date`  FROM `emplo |
| 138270 | root | 172.16.0.5:39782 | NULL | Query   |    2 | Sending to client | SELECT SQL_NO_CACHE `o_orderkey`,`o_custkey`,`o_orderstatus`,`o_totalprice`,`o_orderDATE`,`o_orderpr |
| 138271 | root | 172.16.0.5:39784 | NULL | Query   |    2 | Sending to client | SELECT SQL_NO_CACHE `p_partkey`,`p_name`,`p_mfgr`,`p_brand`,`p_type`,`p_size`,`p_container`,`p_retai |
| 138272 | root | 172.16.0.5:39786 | NULL | Query   |    2 | Sending data      | SELECT SQL_NO_CACHE `l_orderkey`,`l_partkey`,`l_suppkey`,`l_linenumber`,`l_quantity`,`l_extendedpric |
| 138273 | root | 172.16.0.5:39788 | NULL | Query   |    2 | Sending to client | SELECT SQL_NO_CACHE `c_custkey`,`c_name`,`c_address`,`c_nationkey`,`c_phone`,`c_acctbal`,`c_mktsegme |
| 138274 | root | 172.16.0.5:39790 | NULL | Sleep   |    2 |                   | NULL                                                                                                 |
| 138275 | root | 172.16.0.5:39792 | NULL | Sleep   |    1 |                   | NULL                                                                                                 |
+--------+------+------------------+------+---------+------+-------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
10 rows in set (0.00 sec)

可以看到138268和138269在备份employees库,138270,138271,138272,138273在备份dbt3,这里没打印全,不过这是真的,不吹牛逼

Ⅲ、看下备份过程吧

session1:
([email protected]) [(none)]> truncate mysql.general_log;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.10 sec)

([email protected]) [(none)]> set global log_output = 'table';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

([email protected]) [(none)]> set global general_log = 1;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.03 sec)

session2:
[[email protected]_0_5_centos ~]# mysqlpump --single-transaction abc > /tmp/backup.sql
Dump completed in 592 milliseconds

(root[email protected]) [(none)]> select thread_id,left(argument, 64) from mysql.general_log order by event_time;
省略部分输出:
+-----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+
|         7 | [email protected] on  using Socket                                  |
|         7 | FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK                                      |
|         7 | SHOW WARNINGS                                                    |
|         7 | SET SESSION TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL REPEATABLE READ          |
|         7 | SHOW WARNINGS                                                    |
|         7 | START TRANSACTION WITH CONSISTENT SNAPSHOT                       |
|         7 | SHOW WARNINGS                                                    |
|         8 | [email protected] on  using Socket                                  |
|         8 | SET SESSION TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL REPEATABLE READ          |
|         8 | SHOW WARNINGS                                                    |
|         8 | START TRANSACTION WITH CONSISTENT SNAPSHOT                       |
|         8 | SHOW WARNINGS                                                    |
|         9 | [email protected] on  using Socket                                  |
|         9 | SET SESSION TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL REPEATABLE READ          |
|         9 | SHOW WARNINGS                                                    |
|         9 | START TRANSACTION WITH CONSISTENT SNAPSHOT                       |
|         9 | SHOW WARNINGS                                                    |
|         7 | UNLOCK TABLES                                                    |
|         7 | SHOW WARNINGS                                                    |
|         9 | SET SQL_QUOTE_SHOW_CREATE= 1                                     |
|         9 | SHOW WARNINGS                                                    |
|         9 | SET TIME_ZONE='+00:00'                                           |
|         8 | SET SQL_QUOTE_SHOW_CREATE= 1                                     |
|         8 | SHOW WARNINGS                                                    |
|         8 | SET TIME_ZONE='+00:00'                                           |
|         3 | set global general_log = 0                                       |
+-----------+------------------------------------------------------------------+
1.线程7 进行 FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK 。对表加一个读锁
2.线程7、8、9分别开启一个事物(RR隔离级别)去备份数据,由于之前锁表了,所以这三个线程备份出的数据是具有一致性的
3.线程7 解锁 UNLOCK TABLE
整个过程没有获取二进制位置点

Ⅳ、compress-output

mysqlpump支持压缩输出,支持LZ4和ZLIB(ZLIB压缩比相对较高,但是速度较慢)

[[email protected]_0_5_centos tmp]# mysqlpump --single-transaction --compress-output=lz4 abc > /tmp/backup_abc.sql
Dump completed in 511 milliseconds

Ⅴ、备份恢复

未压缩的备份

mysql < backup.sql

压缩过的备份

先解压
zlib_decompress
lz4_decompress
lz4_decompress backup_abc.sql backup.sql
再导入
mysql < backup.sql

可以看出来,这个导入是单线程

tips:

mysqlpump备份的数据恢复时会先插入数据,再建索引,而mysqldump备份的数据恢复是在建立表的时候就把索引加上了,所以前者备份的数据恢复时速度要快一点

总结:后续关注,现在用不上

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转载自www.cnblogs.com/---wunian/p/8992858.html