2018.4.26 18周2次课

十八周二次课(4月26日)

20.31 expect脚本同步文件

20.32 expect脚本指定host和要同步的文件

20.33 构建文件分发系统

20.34 批量远程执行命令

20.31 expect脚本同步文件

自动同步文件

编辑脚本文件:vi 4.expect

#!/usr/bin/expect

set passwd "123456"

spawn rsync -av [email protected]:/tmp/12.txt /tmp/         //从远程同步到本机

 

expect {

"yes/no" { send "yes\r"}

"password:" { send "$passwd\r" }

}

 

expect eof

更改权限:chmod a+x 4.expect

执行脚本文件:./4.expect

[[email protected]g-02 /usr/local/sbin]# ./4.expect

spawn rsync -av [email protected]:/tmp/12.txt /tmp/

receiving incremental file list

12.txt

 

sent 30 bytes  received 84 bytes  228.00 bytes/sec

total size is 5  speedup is 0.04

expect: spawn id exp6 not open

    while executing

"expect eof"

    (file "./4.expect" line 10)

[[email protected] /usr/local/sbin]#

查看12.txt文件:cat /tmp/12.txt

[[email protected] /usr/local/sbin]# cat /tmp/12.txt

1212

如果脚本最后一行被注释掉:# expect eof,那执行脚本时无法继续下去

[[email protected] /usr/local/sbin]# ./4.expect

spawn rsync -av [email protected]:/tmp/12.txt /tmp/

The authenticity of host '192.168.37.100 (192.168.37.100)' can't be established.

ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:O/psyoi564EA1rmbUfUBPXikCFUf6bMTmwfAb8wwi7A.

ECDSA key fingerprint is MD5:47:ce:6b:84:7d:4f:e2:5a:cc:bb:0f:4b:61:be:ca:d6.

Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? [[email protected] /usr/local/sbin]#

[[email protected] /usr/local/sbin]#

20.32 expect脚本指定host和要同步的文件

timeout设置超时时间,单位是秒,如果设为timeout -1 意为永不超时

编辑脚本文件vi 3.expect

#!/usr/bin/expect

 

set user [lindex $argv 0]        // $argv,参数数组,使用[lindex $argv n]获取

set host [lindex $argv 1]

set passwd "123456"

set cm [lindex $argv 2]

spawn ssh [email protected]$host

 

expect {

"yes/no" { send "yes\r"}

"password:" { send "$passwd\r" }

}

expect "]*"

send "$cm\r"

set timeout 5        //在执行的命令行:send "$cm\r"下,设置超时5秒

expect "]*"

send "exit\r"

执行脚本:./3.expect root 192.168.37.100 "vmstat 1"

[[email protected] /usr/local/sbin]# ./3.expect root 192.168.37.100 "vmstat 1"

spawn ssh [email protected]

Last login: Wed Apr 25 11:32:33 2018 from 192.168.37.101

[[email protected] ~]# vmstat 1

procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- -system-- ------cpu-----

 r  b   swpd   free   buff  cache   si   so    bi    bo   in   cs us sy id wa st

 1  0      0 3053360   2076 202428    0    0     2     0   27   26  0  0 100  0  0

 0  0      0 3053220   2076 202460    0    0     0     0  110  103  0  0 100  0  0

 0  0      0 3053220   2076 202460    0    0     0     0   84   85  0  0 100  0  0

 0  0      0 3053220   2076 202460    0    0     0     0   84   86  0  0 100  0  0

 0  0      0 3053220   2076 202460    0    0     0     0   96   97  0  0 100  0  0

[[email protected] /usr/local/sbin]#

指定host和要同步的文件

#!/usr/bin/expect

set passwd "123456"

set host [lindex $argv 0]

set file [lindex $argv 1]

spawn rsync -av $file [email protected]$host:$file         //从本机同步到远程。执行时,变量file要写文件的绝对路径。

expect {

"yes/no" { send "yes\r"}

"password:" { send "$passwd\r" }

}

expect eof

更改权限:chmod a+x 5.expect

执行脚本:./5.expect 192.168.37.100 "/tmp/12.txt"

[[email protected] /usr/local/sbin]# ./5.expect 192.168.37.100 "/tmp/12.txt"

spawn rsync -av /tmp/12.txt [email protected]:/tmp/12.txt

sending incremental file list

12.txt

 

sent 79 bytes  received 31 bytes  220.00 bytes/sec

total size is 5  speedup is 0.05

expect: spawn id exp6 not open

    while executing

"expect eof"

(file "./5.expect" line 10)

20.33 构建文件分发系统

需求背景

对于大公司而言,肯定时不时会有网站或者配置文件更新,而且使用的机器肯定也是好多台,少则几台,多则几十甚至上百台。所以,自动同步文件是至关重要的。

实现思路

首先要有一台模板机器,把要分发的文件准备好,然后只要使用expect脚本批量把需要同步的文件分发到目标机器即可。

核心命令

rsync -av --files-from=list.txt  /  [email protected]:/

文件分发系统的实现

 rsync.expect 内容

#!/usr/bin/expect

set passwd "123456"

set host [lindex $argv 0]

set file [lindex $argv 1]

spawn rsync -avR --files-from=$file / [email protected]$host:/      //如果对方主机没有相同的路径,那rsync要加上-R,会自动创建级联目录

expect {

"yes/no" { send "yes\r"}

"password:" { send "$passwd\r" }      //如果采用密匙认证的方法登陆,那这行就不需要了,可以注释掉

}

expect eof

 ip.list内容

192.168.37.100

127.0.0.1

list.txt内容     

/tmp/12.txt

/root/shell/1.sh

/root/111/222/111.txt

还要保证2台主机登陆密码要一样,如果不一样就要挨个定义每一台主机的密码:passwd

[[email protected] ~]# passwd

更改用户 root 的密码 。

新的 密码:

用passwd不是很安全。我们可以用密钥认证的方法

rsync.sh 内容

#!/bin/bash

for ip in `cat /tmp/ip.list`

do

    echo $ip

    ./rsync.expect $ip /tmp/list.txt

done

更改权限:chmod a+x rsync.expect

执行脚本:sh -x rsync.sh

[[email protected] /usr/local/sbin]# sh -x rsync.sh

++ cat /tmp/ip.list

+ for ip in '`cat /tmp/ip.list`'

+ echo 192.168.37.100

192.168.37.100

+ ./rsync.expect 192.168.37.100 /tmp/list.txt

spawn rsync -avR --files-from=/tmp/list.txt / [email protected]:/

building file list ... rsync: link_stat "/root/shell/1.sh" failed: No such file or directory (2)

done

root/

root/111/

root/111/222/

root/111/222/111.txt

tmp/

 

sent 169 bytes  received 43 bytes  424.00 bytes/sec

total size is 5  speedup is 0.02

rsync error: some files/attrs were not transferred (see previous errors) (code 23) at main.c(1052) [sender=3.0.9]

expect: spawn id exp6 not open

    while executing

"expect eof"

(file "./rsync.expect" line 10)

脚本执行中有个报错,/root/shell/1.sh文件不存在

查看01主机上有没有111.txt文件:ls /root/111/222/

[[email protected] ~]# ls /root/111/222/

111.txt

20.34 批量远程执行命令

exe.expect 内容

#!/usr/bin/expect

set host [lindex $argv 0]

set passwd "123456"

set cm [lindex $argv 1]

spawn ssh [email protected]$host

expect {

"yes/no" { send "yes\r"}

"password:" { send "$passwd\r" }

}

expect "]*"

send "$cm\r"

expect "]*"

send "exit\r"

 

exe.sh 内容

#!/bin/bash

for ip in `cat /tmp/ip.list`

do

    echo $ip

    ./exe.expect $ip hostname

done更改权限:chmod a+x exe.expect

执行脚本:sh exe.sh

[[email protected] /usr/local/sbin]# sh exe.sh

192.168.37.100

spawn ssh [email protected]

Last login: Thu Apr 26 10:45:41 2018 from 192.168.37.1

[[email protected] ~]# hostname

aming-01

[[email protected] ~]# 127.0.0.1

spawn ssh [email protected]

[email protected]'s password:

Last failed login: Thu Apr 26 12:41:26 CST 2018 from 127.0.0.1 on ssh:notty

There were 2 failed login attempts since the last successful login.

Last login: Thu Apr 26 10:45:46 2018 from 192.168.37.1

[[email protected] ~]# hostname

aming-02

 


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